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12 History of Novel Summary in Marathi & English Free Online

 

12 History of Novel Summary in Marathi & English Free Online
12 History of Novel Summary in Marathi & English Free Online

History of Novel Summary in English and Marathi Free Online: Hi Students, in this article you will find 12 History of Novel Summary in English and Marathi. History of Novel Summary in Marathi & English in a PDF format makes it very convenient for students to do a quick revision of any chapter. This way, you can do your revisions on the go, not losing your valuable time. Also in this article students of 12 will get History of Novel Summary in english for the ease of students. This will help prepare students for the upcoming exams and score better. Hope this History of Novel Summary in Marathi & English will be helpful to you.


12 History of Novel Summary in Marathi & English

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12

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History of Novel

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12 History of Novel Summary

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12 History of Novel Summary in Marathi

Students can check below the 12 History of Novel Summary in Marathi. Students can bookmark this page for future preparation of exams.


नोव्हेला
‘नोव्हेला’ हा शब्द ‘नोव्हेले’ या इटालियन शब्दापासून आला आहे. हा एक प्रकारचा गद्य कादंबरी आहे जो पूर्ण लांबीच्या कादंबरीपेक्षा लहान आणि लहान कथांपेक्षा लांब असतो. हे एक सुव्यवस्थित पण लहान कथा आहे. ते अनेकदा व्यंग्यात्मक किंवा स्वरात वास्तववादी असते. हे सहसा एक किंवा दोन मुख्य पात्रांसह एका घटनेवर किंवा समस्येवर लक्ष केंद्रित करते आणि एकाच परंपरेत घडते.

कादंबरीची शैली:
घटनाक्रमाच्या कथनासाठी लेखकाने वापरलेली भाषा आणि तंत्रे ‘शैली’ म्हणून ओळखली जातात. एखादा लेखक विस्तृत शब्दसंग्रह आणि उच्च वाक्प्रचार वापरू शकतो किंवा तो लॅकोनिक असू शकतो आणि केवळ मुद्द्यापर्यंत लिहू शकतो किंवा तो त्याच्या उद्देशाच्या पूर्ततेसाठी आवश्यकतेनुसार दोन्ही मिसळू शकतो. कथन प्रभावी करण्यासाठी तो भाषिक साधनांचा वापर करू शकतो. हे सर्व घटक कथनाचा ‘पोत’ ठरवतात आणि वाचकांवर प्रभाव निर्माण करतात. त्याला कादंबरीची शैली म्हणतात.

कादंबरीचे प्रकार:
1) चेतनेचा प्रवाह कादंबरी:

1890 मध्ये विल्यम जेम्सने त्याच्या ‘प्रिन्सिपल्स ऑफ सायकॉलॉजी’ या ग्रंथात स्ट्रीम ऑफ कॉन्शसनेस हा शब्दप्रयोग तयार केला आहे. ही कथन पद्धती आहे जी पात्रांच्या मनातील विचारांच्या प्रवाहात घडणाऱ्या घटनांचे वर्णन करते. कथानकामधील घटना त्यांच्या घटनांच्या क्रमाने असतात. कादंबरीकार त्या पात्राच्या मनात प्रवेश करताच त्यांचे कथन करतो. चेतनेचा प्रवाह ही कादंबरी सामान्यतः आतील एकपात्री प्रयोगाच्या वर्णनात्मक तंत्रांचा वापर करते.

२) मानसशास्त्रीय कादंबरी:

मानसशास्त्रीय कादंबरी ही काल्पनिक कादंबरी आहे जी नायकाच्या किंवा इतर पात्रांच्या अंतर्गत जीवनाचा बाह्य घटकांइतकाच विचार करते. त्याला मानसशास्त्रीय वास्तववाद असेही म्हणतात. हे गद्य काल्पनिक कथांचे एक काम आहे ज्यामध्ये आंतरिक व्यक्तिचित्रणावर नेहमीपेक्षा जास्त भर दिला जातो आणि हेतू, परिस्थिती आणि बाह्य क्रियेतून उद्भवणारी आणि विकसित होणारी अंतर्गत क्रिया यावर भर दिला जातो. उदा. चार्ल्स डिकन्सची 'ग्रेट एक्स्पेक्टेशन्स'.

3) एपिस्टोलरी कादंबरी:

'एपिस्टोलरी' हा शब्द लॅटिन शब्द 'एपिस्टोला' पासून आला आहे, ज्याचा अर्थ एक अक्षर आहे. एपिस्टॉलरी कादंबरी अशी आहे ज्यामध्ये लेखक पत्रांच्या मालिकेद्वारे किंवा इतर दस्तऐवजांच्या माध्यमातून कथा सादर करतो. जरी पत्रे हा एपिस्टोलरी कादंबरीचा सर्वात सामान्य आधार असला तरी, डायरीच्या नोंदी देखील या प्रकारचा एक लोकप्रिय प्रकार आहे. उदा. पामेला (सॅम्युअल रिचर्डसन द्वारे), एक तरुण मुलीची डायरी (अ‍ॅनी फ्रँक द्वारे) इ.

4) आत्मचरित्रात्मक कादंबरी:

आत्मचरित्रात्मक कादंबरी ही लेखकाच्या जीवनावर आधारित कादंबरी आहे. तथापि, लेखक पात्रांची ठिकाणे आणि नावे बदलतो किंवा त्याच्या जीवनातील काही तपशील बदलू किंवा टाळू शकतो. ते प्रथम व्यक्तीच्या कथनात असू शकते किंवा नसू शकते. उदा. चार्ल्स डिकन्सचे डेव्हिड कॉपरफिल्ड

5) गॉथिक कादंबरी:

ज्या कादंबऱ्यांमध्ये दहशत, रहस्य, भयपट, थ्रिलर, अलौकिक, नशिबात, मृत्यू किंवा क्षय किंवा झपाटलेल्या इमारतींचा समावेश आहे त्यांना द गॉथिक कादंबऱ्या म्हणतात. ही एक शैली आहे जी अलौकिक आणि अज्ञात यांच्या सभोवतालच्या रहस्य आणि कारस्थानांशी संबंधित आहे. गॉथिकच्या वैशिष्ट्यांमध्ये हे समाविष्ट आहे: मृत्यू आणि क्षय, झपाटलेली घरे/किल्ले, कौटुंबिक शाप, वेडेपणा, शक्तिशाली प्रेम/रोमांस, भुते आणि व्हॅम्पायर्स. उदा. ब्रॅम स्टोकर द्वारे ड्रॅकुला.

६) युटोपियन/ डिस्टोपियन कादंबरी:

यूटोपिया हा एक काल्पनिक समुदाय किंवा आदर्श गुण असलेला समाज आहे. ही एक सामान्य साहित्यिक थीम आहे, विशेषत: विज्ञान कथा किंवा सट्टा कल्पित कथांमध्ये. युटोपिया आणि डिस्टोपिया दोन्ही विज्ञान कल्पनारम्य आणि कल्पनारम्य वैशिष्ट्ये सामायिक करतात आणि दोन्ही सहसा भविष्यात सेट केले जातात ज्यामध्ये परिपूर्ण जीवन परिस्थिती निर्माण करण्यासाठी तंत्रज्ञानाचा वापर केला जातो. तथापि, कादंबरीचा फोकस सहसा तंत्रज्ञानावर नसून अशा परिस्थितीत जगणाऱ्या पात्रांच्या मानसशास्त्रावर आणि भावनांवर असतो. उदा. जोनाथन स्विफ्टची 'गुलिव्हर ट्रॅव्हल्स'.

भारतीय कादंबरीची परंपरा:
बंकिमचंद्र चट्टोपाध्याय यांची ‘राजमोहनची पत्नी’ ही भारतीयाने लिहिलेली इंग्रजीतील पहिली कादंबरी होती. त्यानंतरचा काळ भारतीय लेखकांनी लिहिलेल्या आणखी काही कादंबऱ्यांनी चिन्हांकित केला आहे. या कादंबर्‍यांमध्ये एकतर राष्ट्रीय सद्गुण किंवा सामाजिक समस्या यांचा मुख्य आराखडा आहे. मुल्कराज आनंद, आर.के. त्यानंतरच्या काळात नारायण आणि राजा राव हे प्रमुख त्रिकूट गाजले. अनिता देसाई, नयनतारा सहगल, अरुण जोशी आणि मनोहर माळगावकर यांसारख्या कादंबरीकारांनी त्यांच्या कलाकृतींद्वारे भारतीय इंग्रजी कादंबरीचा वर्तमान बदलला. अमिताव घोष, विक्रम सेठ आणि उपमन्यू चॅटर्जी यांनी भारतीय कादंबरी इंग्रजीमध्ये नवीन वैशिष्ट्ये जोडून बदलली. अलीकडील वर्षांमध्ये सलमान रुसी, अरविंद अडिगा, अरुंधती रॉय, किरण देसाई आणि किरण नगरकर यांसारख्या भारतीय कादंबरीकारांच्या चमकदार कामगिरीचे साक्षीदार आहेत. भारतीय इंग्रजी कादंबर्‍यांच्या परंपरेत तिच्या जन्मापासूनच महत्त्वपूर्ण बदल झाला आहे आणि निःसंशयपणे तिला खूप उज्ज्वल भविष्य आहे.


12 History of Novel Summary in English

Students can check below the 12 History of Novel Summary in English. Students can bookmark this page for future preparation of exams.


Novella
The word ‘novela’ comes from the Italian word ‘novele’. It is a kind of prose novel that is shorter than a full length novel and longer than a short story. It's a neat but short story. It is often sarcastic or realistic in tone. It usually focuses on an event or problem with one or two main characters and occurs in the same tradition.

Novel genre:
The language and techniques used by the author to narrate events are known as 'style'. An author may use broad vocabulary and high phrases, or he may be laconic and write only to the point, or he may combine the two as needed to fulfill his purpose. He can use linguistic tools to make the statement effective. All of these factors determine the texture of the narrative and influence the reader. It's called the genre of the novel.

Types of novels:
1) Flow of Consciousness Novel:

In 1890, William James coined the term Stream of Consciousness in his book Principles of Psychology. It is a narrative method that describes the events that take place in the flow of thoughts in the minds of the characters. The events in the storyline are in the order of their events. The novelist narrates them as soon as they enter the mind of the character. The Flow of Consciousness The novel generally uses descriptive techniques of inner monologue.

2) Psychological novels:

Psychological novel is a fictional novel that thinks of the inner life of the protagonist or other characters as much as the external elements. It is also called psychological realism. It is a work of fictional fiction in which the emphasis is on the inner personification more than ever, and on the internal action that arises and develops from purpose, situation, and external action. E.g. Charles Dickens's 'Great Expectations'.

3) Epistolary Novel:

The word 'epistolari' comes from the Latin word 'epistola', which means one letter. An epistolic novel is one in which the author presents the story through a series of letters or through other documents. Although letters are the most common basis for epistolary novels, diary entries are also a popular form of this type. E.g. Pamela (by Samuel Richardson), a young girl's diary (by Annie Frank), etc.

4) Autobiographical novel:

An autobiographical novel is a novel based on the author's life. However, the author may change the places and names of the characters or change or avoid certain details in his life. It may or may not be in the first person's narrative. E.g. David Copperfield of Charles Dickens

5) Gothic Novel:

Novels that include horror, mystery, horror, thriller, supernatural, fate, death or decay or collapsed buildings are called The Gothic novels. It is a genre that deals with the mysteries and intrigues surrounding the supernatural and the unknown. Gothic features include: death and decay, haunted houses / castles, family curses, madness, powerful love / romance, demons and vampires. E.g. Dracula by Bram Stoker.

6) Utopian / Dystopian novels:

Utopia is an imaginary community or society with ideal qualities. This is a common literary theme, especially in science fiction or speculative fiction. Both utopia and dystopia share science fiction and fantasy features and both are usually set in the future in which technology is used to create perfect living conditions. However, the focus of the novel is usually not on technology but on the psychology and emotions of the characters living in such situations. E.g. Jonathan Swift's 'Gulliver's Travels'.

Tradition of Indian Novel:
Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay's 'Rajmohan's Wife' was the first novel written in English by an Indian. The period after that is marked by a few more novels written by Indian writers. These novels have the main outline of either national virtue or social problem. Mulkraj Anand, R.K. Later, Narayan and Raja Rao became prominent trio. Novelists like Anita Desai, Nayantara Sehgal, Arun Joshi and Manohar Malgaonkar changed the present of Indian English fiction through their works. Amitabh Ghosh, Vikram Seth and Upamanyu Chatterjee changed the Indian novel into English by adding new features. In recent years, Indian novelists like Salman Rusi, Arvind Adiga, Arundhati Roy, Kiran Desai and Kiran Nagarkar have witnessed brilliant performances. The tradition of Indian English novels has undergone significant changes since its birth and it undoubtedly has a very bright future.


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For clearing board exams for the students. they’re going to need to possess a well-structured commit to study. The communicating are conducted within the month of could per annum. Students got to be sturdy academically in conjunction with numerous different skills like time management, exam-taking strategy, situational intelligence and analytical skills. Students got to harden.

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