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9 Intellectual Rubbish Summary in Marathi & English Free Online

 

9 Intellectual Rubbish Summary in Marathi & English Free Online
9 Intellectual Rubbish Summary in Marathi & English Free Online

Intellectual Rubbish Summary in English and Marathi Free Online: Hi Students, in this article you will find 9 Intellectual Rubbish Summary in English and Marathi. Intellectual Rubbish Summary in Marathi & English in a PDF format makes it very convenient for students to do a quick revision of any chapter. This way, you can do your revisions on the go, not losing your valuable time. Also in this article students of 9 will get Intellectual Rubbish Summary in english for the ease of students. This will help prepare students for the upcoming exams and score better. Hope this Intellectual Rubbish Summary in Marathi & English will be helpful to you.


9 Intellectual Rubbish Summary in Marathi & English

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Intellectual Rubbish

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9 Intellectual Rubbish Summary in Marathi

Students can check below the 9 Intellectual Rubbish Summary in Marathi. Students can bookmark this page for future preparation of exams.


हा तुकडा रसेलच्या 'बौद्धिक कचर्‍याची बाह्यरेखा' या निबंधाचा भाग आहे. मूर्ख मतांपासून दूर राहण्यासाठी कोणत्याही अलौकिक क्षमतेची गरज नाही या विधानापासून सुरुवात होते. तो असे प्रतिपादन करतो की एखाद्याला सर्व चुकांपासून नव्हे तर मूर्ख चुकांपासून वाचवण्याचे सोपे नियम आहेत. त्यांनी अॅरिस्टॉटलचे उदाहरण दिले ज्याने घोषित केले की स्त्रियांना पुरुषांपेक्षा कमी दात असतात. रसेल म्हणतो की जर मिसेस अॅरिस्टॉटलने मोजणी पूर्ण होईपर्यंत तोंड उघडे ठेवण्यास सांगितले असते तर त्याने स्वतःला खूप गंभीर चूक करण्यापासून वाचवले असते. त्याला माहीत आहे असे वाटल्याने त्याने तसे केले नाही. रसेलच्या मते ही सर्वात मोठी चूक आहे. हेजहॉग्जबद्दलचे त्याचे स्वतःचे विश्वास आणि युनिकॉर्न आणि सॅलॅमंडर्सबद्दल प्राचीन आणि मध्ययुगीन लेखकांचे विश्वास सांगून त्यांनी ही परिस्थिती आणखी स्पष्ट केली. रसेल म्हणतात की एखाद्याची मते अनुभवाच्या कसोटीवर आणली पाहिजेत.

असे अनेक मार्ग आहेत ज्याद्वारे एखाद्याच्या पूर्वाग्रहाची जाणीव होऊ शकते. जर एखाद्याच्या स्वतःच्या विरुद्ध मतामुळे त्याला/तिला राग येतो, तर त्यांना हे समजले पाहिजे की ते स्वतःच अवचेतन स्तरावर संशयास्पद आहेत. तो अंकगणित आणि धर्मशास्त्र यातील फरक स्पष्ट करतो. अंकगणित हे ज्ञानाबद्दल आहे, परंतु धर्मशास्त्र हे केवळ मतांबद्दल आहे. ज्ञान हे निरीक्षणाचा परिणाम आहे पण मत असण्याची गरज नाही. म्हणून जेव्हा जेव्हा एखाद्याला दुसर्‍या व्यक्तीच्या मताबद्दल राग येतो तेव्हा त्या व्यक्तीने सावध रहावे आणि त्यांची कल्पना निश्चित करण्यासाठी निरीक्षणे करावी.

रसेल कट्टरतेबद्दल बोलतो आणि त्यापासून मुक्त होण्याचे मार्ग देखील सुचवतो. ते आहेत

1. सामाजिक वर्तुळात स्वतःच्यापेक्षा भिन्न असलेल्या मतांची जाणीव होणे. इन्सुलर पूर्वग्रहाची तीव्रता कमी करण्याचा प्रवास हा एक चांगला मार्ग आहे. येथे रसेल त्याच्या प्रवासातील वैयक्तिक अनुभव पाहतो. जेव्हा तो तरुण होता तेव्हा तो त्याच्या स्वतःच्या देशाबाहेर विशेषतः फ्रान्स, जर्मनी, इटली आणि यूएस मध्ये राहत होता.
2. जर एखाद्याला प्रवास परवडत नसेल तर ते भिन्न मत असलेल्या लोकांशी संवाद साधू शकतात. हे इतरांच्या दृष्टीकोनातून विचार करण्यास मदत करेल.
3. अन्यथा विरुद्ध पक्षाचे वर्तमानपत्र वाचता येते. जर असे लोक आणि वृत्तपत्रे वेडे किंवा अर्थपूर्ण वाटत असतील तर एखाद्याने स्वतःला सावध केले पाहिजे की ते इतरांद्वारे देखील त्याच परिस्थितीत दिसतील.

रसेलने आणखी एक मनोरंजक निरीक्षण दिले की इतर देशांच्या चालीरीती जाणून घेतल्याने नेहमीच फायदा होणार नाही. जेव्हा मांचूंनी चीन जिंकला तेव्हा चिनी लोकांमध्ये महिलांना लहान पाय ठेवण्याची प्रथा होती आणि मांचूसाठी पुरुषांनी पिगटेल घालण्याची प्रथा होती. या दोन लोकांनी आपल्या मूर्ख प्रथा सोडण्याऐवजी, प्रत्येकाने दुसर्‍याच्या प्रथा स्वीकारल्या. 1911 मध्ये मांचसचे वर्चस्व संपेपर्यंत चिनी लोकांनी पिगटेल घालणे चालू ठेवले. तथापि, एखाद्याने इतर लोक आणि संस्कृतींमध्ये जे चांगले आहे त्याचा न्याय करणे आणि स्वीकारणे शिकले पाहिजे. दुसर्‍या श्रद्धेचे किंवा आचरणाचे आंधळे पालन केल्याने काही फायदा होणार नाही.

कट्टरता टाळण्याची दुसरी पद्धत म्हणजे भिन्न पक्षपाती असलेल्या व्यक्तीशी वादाची कल्पना करणे. पद्धतीचा एकच फायदा म्हणजे ती वेळ आणि जागेच्या मर्यादांच्या अधीन नाही. अशा प्रकारच्या काल्पनिक संवादांमुळे त्याने अनेकवेळा आपले मत बदलल्याचे रसेल सांगतात.

रसेल एखाद्याच्या स्वाभिमानाची चापलूस करणारी मते घेण्यास सावधगिरी बाळगण्यास सांगतात. ही समस्या हाताळणे खूप कठीण आहे कारण प्रत्येकजण त्याच्या/तिच्या श्रेष्ठतेची जाणीव ठेवतो. रसेलच्या मते हे थोडे नम्रतेने आणि वाजवीपणाने वागले पाहिजे. आपल्या मूल्यांचे मानक निरपेक्ष असू नये कारण इतर लोक आणि इतर संस्कृती आहेत. त्यांची मानके आणि मूल्ये प्रणाली त्यांच्या जीवनात तितक्याच आदरणीय आणि मूल्यवान आहेत. ते पुढे म्हणतात की माणूस म्हणून माणसाच्या स्वाभिमानाला सामोरे जाणे अधिक कठीण आहे, कारण आपण काही गैर-मानवी मनाने या विषयावर वाद घालू शकत नाही. या सामान्य मानवी श्रेष्ठतेचे निराकरण करण्याचा एकमेव मार्ग म्हणजे एका लहान ग्रहातील एपिसोडिक मानवी जीवनाची आठवण करून देणे. शिवाय, मानवांना हे माहित असले पाहिजे की विश्वाच्या इतर भागांमध्ये स्वतःहून श्रेष्ठ जीवन असू शकते.

भीती, रसेल म्हणतात, त्रुटीचा आणखी एक सामान्य स्रोत आहे. कल्पनाशक्ती नकारात्मक आणि हानीकारकपणे कार्य करते जेव्हा एखादी व्यक्ती विशिष्ट प्रकारचे भय (विनाशकारी युद्ध, भूत) शोधून काढते किंवा भ्रामक लाभ (शाश्वत जीवन, स्वर्ग) इत्यादिचा आनंद घेते. एखाद्या व्यक्तीने किमान स्वतःला या भीती मान्य करायला शिकले पाहिजे. जेव्हा एखादी व्यक्ती भीतीवर मात करते तेव्हा तो कमी अंधश्रद्धाळू आणि अधिक तर्कशुद्ध बनतो. जादू, चेटूक आणि जादूटोणा केवळ स्वातंत्र्याचा भ्रम कसा निर्माण करतात हे दाखवण्यासाठी रसेल काही उदाहरणे देतो. जेव्हा ते तर्कशुद्धपणे भीतीवर विजय मिळवतात तेव्हाच माणूस खरोखर मुक्त होतो.

रसेलने, सॉक्रेटिसच्या मृत्यूच्या दिवशी त्याचे उदाहरण दिले, असे नमूद केले की लोक भविष्यातील जीवनाबद्दल (मृत्यूनंतरचे जीवन) अनुमान लावतात कारण ते आजच्या जगाशी नाखूष आहेत. असे विचार देखील भीतीचे लक्षण आहेत.


9 Intellectual Rubbish Summary in English

Students can check below the 9 Intellectual Rubbish Summary in English. Students can bookmark this page for future preparation of exams.


This piece is part of Russell's essay 'Outline of Intellectual Waste.' It starts with the statement that one does not need any supernatural ability to stay away from foolish opinions. He asserts that there are simple rules for saving someone from foolish mistakes, not from all mistakes. He cited the example of Aristotle, who declared that women had fewer teeth than men. Russell says that if Mrs. Aristotle had asked him to keep his mouth open until the count was completed, he would have saved himself from making a very serious mistake. He didn't do it because he thought he knew. According to Russell, this is the biggest mistake. He further clarified the situation by stating his own beliefs about hedgehogs and the beliefs of ancient and medieval writers about unicorns and salamanders. Russell says one's opinion should be put to the test of experience.

There are many ways in which one can be aware of one's prejudices. If one's / her own opinion makes him / her angry, he / she should understand that he / she is suspicious on a subconscious level. He explains the difference between arithmetic and theology. Arithmetic is about knowledge, but theology is only about opinions. Knowledge is the result of observation but not of opinion. So whenever someone gets angry about another person's opinion, that person should be careful and make observations to confirm their idea.

Russell talks about bigotry and also suggests ways to get rid of it. They are

1. Awareness of opinions that differ from one's own in social circles. The journey is a great way to reduce the severity of insular bias. Here Russell looks at the personal experiences of his travels. When he was young he lived outside his own country, especially in France, Germany, Italy and the US.
2. If someone cannot afford to travel, they can communicate with people with different opinions. It will help to think from the point of view of others.
3. Otherwise the opposition newspaper can be read. If such people and newspapers seem crazy or meaningful, one should warn oneself that they will be seen by others in the same situation.

Russell made another interesting observation that knowing the customs of other countries would not always be beneficial. When Manchu conquered China, it was customary for the Chinese to keep women short, and for Manchu it was customary for men to wear pigtails. Instead of abandoning their foolish practices, these two adopted each other's practices. The Chinese continued to wear pigtails until the end of Manchus in 1911. However, one must learn to judge and accept what is good in other peoples and cultures. There is no point in blindly following another's beliefs or practices.

Another way to avoid bigotry is to imagine arguing with a person with a different bias. The only advantage of the method is that it is not subject to time and space constraints. Russell says he often changed his mind because of such imaginary conversations.

Russell advises caution in taking opinions that flatter one's self-esteem. This problem is very difficult to deal with because everyone is aware of his / her superiority. According to Russell, this should be done with a little humility and reasonableness. The standard of your values should not be absolute because there are other people and other cultures. Their standards and values systems are equally respected and valued in their lives. He goes on to say that it is more difficult to deal with man's self-esteem as a human being, because we cannot argue on this issue with some non-human mind. The only way to solve this common human superiority is to recall the episodic human life on a small planet. Furthermore, humans need to know that other parts of the universe may have better lives than themselves.

Fear, Russell says, is another common source of error. Imagination works negatively and detrimentally when a person discovers a certain type of fear (destructive war, ghost) or enjoys deceptive benefits (eternal life, paradise), etc. One must at least learn to accept these fears. When a person overcomes fear, he becomes less superstitious and more rational. Russell gives some examples to show how magic, sorcery and sorcery only create the illusion of freedom. Man is truly liberated only when he overcomes fear logically.

Russell, citing his example on the day of Socrates' death, noted that people speculate about future life (life after death) because they are unhappy with today's world. Such thoughts are also a sign of fear.


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